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    Pawon Temple, Magelang - Central Java - Indonesia

    Pawon Temple is located in Borobudur Village, Borobudur Sub-district, Magelang District, Central Java Province. The temple, which is also called Brajanalan Temple, is 2 kilometers to the north east of Barabudhur Temple, and a kilometer to the south east of Mendut Temple. That Mendut, Pawon and Barabudhur Temples are aligned leads to a speculation that the three Buddhist temples are closely related to each other. Moreover, the three temples show similar sculpture designs on temple bodies. Poerbatjaraka, an expert, even argued that Pawon Temple was an upa angga (an integral part of) Barabudhur Temple.

    Casparis claimed that Pawon Temple was a shrine to keep the ashes of King Indra (782 - 812 AD), father of King Samarrattungga of Syailendra Dynasti. Some people believe that the name "Pawon" derived from the word pawuan, which means a place to keep awu (ashes). Experts believe that there was a statue of Bodhisattva inside the temple chamber. The statue was a token to honor King Indra who was believed to have reached a Bodhisattva level. The inscription on Karang tengah stone statue states that Bodhisattva statue radiates wajra (rays). The statement leads to speculation that Bodhisattva statue was made of bronze.

    Pawon Temple sits on a rectangular platform that rises 1.5 meters from the ground. The edge of base surface, however, is curving that makes the surface a 20-cornered platform. The platform sides are decorated with sculptures depicting flowers and clinging vines. Unlike other Buddhist temples, the body of Pawon Temple is slim, similar to that of Hindu temples.

    The doorway into temple chamber is on the west side. Above the doorframe, there is a sculpture of Kalamakara without its lower jaw. The outer sides of stone banisters flanking the stairs leading to the walkway are decorated with etching. The dragon heads sculptured onto the lower end of stone banisters are deteriorated. Although the temple chamber is vacant, there are markings on the floor suggesting that there was a statue inside the chamber.

    At the front part of the temple, on the outer walls to the left and right of the doorway, there are niches in which an image of standing Kuwera (god of wealth) is sculptured. The sculpture inside the southern niche, however, is broken and hardly recognizable. All parts of the sculpture inside the northern niche is still complete but the head.

    There are similar designs sculptured onto the north and south sides of temple outer walls. The design depicts Kinara and Kinari, a couple of man-headed birds, flanking a Kalpataru tree growing from inside a jug. There are moneybags scattered around the tree. A couple of human beings is seen flowing in the sky above the tree. At the upper part of the wall surface, there are two small ventilation windows. Between the windows, there is a sculpture of kumuda (clinging vines that climb out from inside a rounded jug).

    The layered temple roof is rectangular embellished with some small dagobas (dome) kecil at each sides. The roof is topped with a bigger dagoba.

    Source: candi.pnri.go.id

    photo: 2.bp.blogspot.com

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